Natural beauty of the landscape             englishslovakrussian

Iceland Nature has much to offer normal visitors.It is full of contrasts and great beauty.Although seemingly mosses and lichens are not all interesting,are present everywhere.The converse is true.Nature of this island formed mainly volcanic activity and glacial activity.Volcano eruptions alter the shape of their country,hot lava flowed into the valley and create extensive lava fields,edges of the glacier pushed its soil and rocks and created the hills that surrounded it.In turn, is the melting lakes or rivers. 


°map of Iceland's volcanoes

The volcano is magma generated geomorphological unit, acting on the surface or under water or ice.

Volcanoes are the most represented at the edges of tectonic plates and Iceland leads right through the ceiling.So there are hundreds of volcanoes, and it is about 20 active.The volcanic eruptions rolls hot lava into the valley, and when faced with water or ice hardens and creates a lava field.They are seen almost everywhere on the island and some are large and few tens of kilometers.

The most famous volcano in Iceland is Hekla.Located on the southwest of the country.Another active volcano is well known Krafla-eruption in 1984 of a large caldera 10 km.Other volcanoes:Katla,Askja,Grímsvötn-volcano under the glacier Vatnajokull (erupcion in 2004),Kerið.

Last activity of the volcano in Iceland is from 2010, when the volcano awoke lying on Eyjafallajoekull glacier in southern Iceland.(°see news)


Lovers of the waterfalls on the island come into their own.There are many waterfalls, is the giant to the smallest.Some even have hot water.The beautiful waterfall is considered Gullfoss (golden waterfall),which is also very visited because of the fact that it is only 10 km from center Geysir, where are geysers and hot springs.Located on Hvítá River, which flows from the glacier.Gullfos is very nice in the winter too, when is icy and can create patterns.The highest waterfall and really beautiful is Háifoss where the water falls into a deep gorge from a height of about 200 m.There are actually three separate waterfalls.Fossá River divides the rock and down a deep canyon to turn water service.This waterfall is located near the volcano Hekla.Other waterfalls are beautiful as Skogafoss (60 meters), near the volcano Krafla,or waterfall with the largest volume of water, a huge waterfall Dettifoss or waterfall Godafoss gods.


Aurora occurs when electrically charged solar wind particles, especially electrons but also protons, alpha particles and heavy ions hitting some of the top layer of the atmosphere.This causes the fluorescence of molecules of air. The impact causes the particles in the molecule / atom corresponding activation as electron configuration. After a short time and subsequent "release" is excluded light (photon), generally it is called fluorescence or recombination (source wikipedia article)
Aurora is just the most visible areas of earth and the magnetic poles.Since this island with its location around 65 ° North latitude is near the polar circle, so this phenomenon is very noticeable.Of course that depends on solar activity and also by whether the polar night or day.Moving and changing solar wind particles colourised sky in green, orange, yellow and red.It's a great view.The observation of this phenomenon is really a wonderful experience.


Snow ice is building substance, the continuous freezing and melting slowly converted to the form of granular ice. The subsequent action of the pressure of overlying snow layers compress and called Firn.Over time, each layer subject to further compression to create a mass of glacier. Bottom layer is the influence of high pressure plastic, allowing the slow movement of the iceberg.The glacier needn´t to necessarily to stop its a movement ,it can to slip ,this is assured a constant thickness of ice to adding additional layers of snow at the top. The top layer is fragile and often there arise large cracks.

 The largest glacier outside the Arctic region: Vatnajökull area of 8,300 km2 (8% of the area of Iceland). The largest European glacier, located outside the Arctic region (south of the Arctic Circle). It is located in the southeast interior of the island of Iceland. Reaches an average thickness of 400 m, 1000 m maximum. Vatnajökull glacier, as well as the fourth largest Icelandic glacier Mýrdalsjokull are threatened volcano eruptions under the ice, which cause catastrophic floods - local called jokullhlaup (literally fled from the iceberg). Glaciers of Iceland is the center of Glaciology. The presence of local glaciers, having the form of 13 ice caps and several iced areas are there thanks to altitude. There are questions on the high plateaus. Occupy an area of 11,260 km2, which is 10.9% of the total area of the island. Dynamic glacier: Breidamerkurkokull - massive glacial unit ends of the giant cap Vatnajökull glacier to the south.Declining his face almost to the coast of the North Atlantic Ocean, where there is an iceberg that is telent the breaking of the iceberg, and their separation.It is referred by the lowest glacier outside the Arctic part of Europe to face lying a few meters above sea level.


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Place a conflict of earth plates 

The Earth crust is subdivided into tectonic plates.These plates are moving, and there may be conflicts of: convergent (two plates are colliding in), divergent (two plates diverge from each other) or transformation (the plates are moving side by side in opposite directions). Occur in meeting the various geological phenomena: earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain formation, the emergence of Rift zones and ocean trenches.

In Iceland, this clash of divergent plates (plates are distant from each other).In the area of Thingvellir move 1-2 centimeters per year.This created cracks and depression, which are usually embedded in water.The movement of earth plates can be well seen on the hills,which look like if were cut.Move the plates is changing the landscape.


Iceland Atlantic Bight (North Sea) and Arctic (Greenland Sea).